811 Because of the warm and sunny weather, oranges grow very well here.
811 Debido al clima cálido y soleado, las naranjas crecen muy bien aquí.
812 In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and, raise cattle.
812 En este país la gente planas crecen el trigo y el maíz, y la cría de ganado.
813 The ground around here is stony and not very good for farming.
813 La tierra aquí es pedregoso y no muy bueno para la agricultura.
814 What are the principal farm products in this region?
814 ¿Cuáles son los principales productos agrícolas de esta región?
815 Milk, butter, and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms.
815 La leche, la mantequilla y el queso son enviados aquí desde las granjas lecheras.
816 They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms.
816 Tuvieron que cortar un montón de árboles para hacer espacio para las granjas.
817 At this time of the year farmers plow their fields.
817 En esta época del año los agricultores arar sus campos.
818 On many farms you’ll find cows and chickens.
818 En muchas granjas que encontrarás vacas y gallinas.
819 If you have cows you have to get up early to do the milking.
819 Si tiene vacas hay que levantarse temprano para hacer el ordeño.
820 Tractors have revolutionized farming.
820 Tractores han revolucionado la agricultura.
821 In the United States, there are many factories for making cloth.
821 En los Estados Unidos, hay muchas fábricas para la fabricación de tela.
822 Factories employ both male and female workers.
822 fábricas emplean a los trabajadores masculinos y femeninos.
823 If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock.
823 Si usted trabaja en una fábrica, por lo general, tiene que marcar tarjeta.
824 Is meat packing a big industry in your country?
824 Es el envasado de carne en una gran industria en su país?
825 Is it true that the manufacturing of automobiles is a major industry?
825 Es cierto que la fabricación de automóviles es una industria importante?
1. grow => [grew, grown], growing, grows
(A) Because of the warm climate, oranges grow very well here. (B) I used to see a lot of oranges growing here, but I don’t anymore. (C) Last year the farmer grew corn on this land. I don’t know what he’ll grow this year. (D) If your land had been fertile, you could have grown tobacco. (A) Debido al clima cálido, las naranjas crecen muy bien aquí. (B) solía ver una gran cantidad de naranjas que crecen aquí, pero ya no lo hago. (C) el año pasado, el agricultor cultivó maíz en esta tierra. No sé lo que va a crecer este año. (D) Si la tierra había sido fértil, podría haber crecido tabaco.
2. raise => raised, raising, raises
(A) In this flat country people raise cattle. (B) I’m raising chickens this year. (C) Mr. Cooper raises cattle on his farm, doesn’t he? (D) I’ve often raised chickens, but I’ve never raised pigs. (A) En este país llano gente cría ganado. (B) Estoy en la cría de pollos de este año. (C) El Sr. Cooper cría ganado en su granja, ¿no es así? (D) A menudo me he criado pollos, pero nunca me he criado cerdos.
3. be shipped => is/are shipped, was/were shipped
(A) Milk, butter and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms. (B) The books you want were shipped to you three months ago. (C) If the books had been shipped several months ago, I would have gotten them by now. (A) la leche, la mantequilla y el queso son enviados aquí desde las granjas lecheras. (B) Los libros que quieras fueron enviadas a usted hace tres meses. (C) Si los libros se habían enviado hace varios meses, les habría llegado ya.
4. cut down => [cut down], cutting down, cuts down
(A) They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms. (B) They’re cutting down all the trees in this area. (C) Who cut this tree down? Do you know? (D) If I had cut that tree down, I would have told you about it. (A) Tuvieron que cortar un montón de árboles para hacer espacio para las granjas. (B) Están cortando todos los árboles en esta área. (C) ¿Quién cortó el árbol de abajo? ¿Sabes? (D) Si hubiera que cortar abajo de árbol, yo os lo hubiera dicho.
5. plow => plowed, plowing, plows
(A) At this time of the year farmers plow their fields. (B) He always plows his fields in September or October. (C) I wish I had finished plowing the fields this morning. (A) En esta época del año los agricultores arar sus campos. (B) Siempre ara sus campos en septiembre u octubre. (C) Me gustaría haber terminado de arar los campos de la mañana.
(A) Tractors have revolutionized farming. (B) The new tractors are revolutionizing farming around here. (C) Modern machinery has revolutionized industry. (A) Tractores han revolucionado la agricultura. (B) Los nuevos tractores están revolucionando la agricultura por aquí. (C) La maquinaria moderna ha revolucionado la industria.
7. employ => employed, employing, employs
(A) Factories employ both male and female workers. (B) This company employs ten people. (C) If they had employed me, I would have worked hard. (A) Las fábricas emplean a los trabajadores masculinos y femeninos. (B) Esta empresa emplea a diez personas. (C) Si me hubieran empleado, yo he trabajado duro.
8. punch (a clock) => punched, punching, punches
(A) If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock. (B) What time did you punch the clock this morning? (C) As soon as he got to work this morning, he punched the clock. (A) Si usted trabaja en una fábrica, por lo general, tiene que marcar tarjeta. (B) ¿A qué hora usted perfora el reloj esta mañana? (C) En cuanto se puso a trabajar esta mañana, marcaba el reloj.
Word/Phrase Substitution Drills
1a Because of the warm and sunny weather, oranges grow very well here.
1b Because of the warm and sunny weather, lemons grow very well here.
1c Because of the warm and sunny weather, cotton and peanuts grow very well here.
1d Because of the warm and sunny weather, tobacco and rice grow very well here.
1e Because of the warm and sunny weather, fruits grow very well here.
2a In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise cattle.
2b In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise pigs.
2c In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise sheep.
2d In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise chickens.
2e In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise thoroughbreds.
3a The ground around here is stony and not very good for farming .
3b The ground around here is swamp land and not very good for farming .
3c The ground around here is mostly clay and not very good for farming .
3d The ground around here is rocky and not very good for farming .
4a What are the principal farm products in this region?
4b What are the principal crops in this region?
4c What are the principal natural resources in this region?
4d What are the principal minerals in this region?
5a Milk, butter and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms.
5b Milk, butter and cheese are brought in here from the dairy farms.
5c Milk, butter and cheese are transported here from the dairy farms.
5d Milk, butter and cheese are flown here from the dairy farms.
6a They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms.
6b They had to clear a lot of land to make room for farms.
6c They had to burn a lot of underbrush to make room for farms.
6d They had to work for many years to make room for farms.
7a At this time of year, farmers plow their fields.
7b At this time of year, farmers cultivate their lands.
7c At this time of year, farmers plant their fields.
7d At this time of year, farmers harvest their crops.
7e At this time of year, farmers get ready for the autumn harvest.
8a On many farms you’ll find cows and chickens.
8b On many farms you’ll find livestock.
8c On many farms you’ll find pet dogs and cats.
8d On many farms you’ll find modern farm equipment.
9a If you have cows you have to get up early to do the milking.
9b If you have livestock you have to get up early to do the feeding.
9c If you have crops you have to get up early to do the plowing.
10a Tractors have revolutionized farming.
10b Modern farm implements have revolutionized farming.
10c Milkers have revolutionized farming.
10d Binders and threshers have revolutionized farming.
10e Hay loaders and reapers have revolutionized farming.
10f Feed grinders have revolutionized farming.
11a In the United States, there are many factories for making cloth.
11b In the United States, there are many factories for making automobiles.
11c In the United States, there are many factories for making furniture.
11d In the United States, there are many factories for making leather goods.
11e In the United States, there are many factories for making steel.
11f In the United States, there are many factories for making appliances.
12a Factories employ both male and female workers.
12b Factories give jobs to both male and female workers.
12c Factories have work for both male and female workers.
13a If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock.
13b If you work in a factory, you usually have to carry a lunch to work.
13c If you work in a factory, you usually have to get to work on time.
13d If you work in a factory, you usually have to work five days a week.
14a Is meat packing a big industry in your country?
14b Is food processing a big industry in your country?
14c Is fishing a big industry in your country?
14d Is fish canning a big industry in your country?
15a Is it true that the manufacturing of automobiles is a major industry?
15b Is it true that the manufacturing of airplanes is a major industry?
15c Is it true that the manufacturing of clothing is a major industry?
15d Is it true that the manufacturing of furniture is a major industry?
The Jensens are a typical American farm family. Mr. and Mrs. Jensen came from Norway many years ago and settled on a dairy farm in Minnesota. Their four children grew up there. The two boys, Olaf and Carl, helped their father take care of the farm. They plowed and planted the fields, harvested the crops and milked the cows. The daughters, Inga and Sigrid, helped their mother with the housework. There was always a lot to do and the whole family worked very hard. Los Jensen son una familia de granjeros estadounidense típico. El señor y la señora Jensen provinieron de Noruega hace muchos años y se instaló en una granja lechera en Minnesota. Sus cuatro hijos se criaron allí. Los dos niños, la OLAF y Carl, ayudaron a su padre a cuidar de la granja. Ellos araron y sembraron los campos cosechados los cultivos y ordeñar las vacas. Las hijas, Inga y Sigrid, ayudaron a su madre con las tareas del hogar. Siempre había mucho que hacer y toda la familia trabajó muy duro.
Today Mr. and Mrs. Jensen are old and cannot work as hard as they did when they were younger. Their son Olaf runs the farm now and his wife and children help him. The work is not as hard now as it used to be. Olaf has bought several machines which do many of the things formerly done by hand. Hoy el señor y la señora Jensen son viejos y no pueden trabajar tan duro como lo hicieron cuando eran más jóvenes. Su hijo Olaf dirige la granja y ahora su esposa y sus hijos lo ayudan. El trabajo no es tan difícil ahora que lo que solía ser. Olaf ha comprado varias máquinas que hacen muchas de las cosas que antes hacían a mano.
The other three children have moved away. Sigrid married a farmer and lives nearby. Carl is living in Minneapolis where he has a good job as manager of a factory which makes dairy products. Some of the milk used by the factory comes from Olaf Jensen’s farm. Olaf Jensen Inga went to the State University and is now teaching in a high school in St. Paul. Los otros tres hijos se han alejado. Sigrid se casó con un agricultor y vive cerca. Carl vive en Minneapolis, donde tiene un buen trabajo como gerente de una fábrica que hace que los productos lácteos. Parte de la leche utilizada en la fábrica proviene de la granja de Olaf Jensen. Olaf Jensen Inga fue a la Universidad del Estado y ahora está enseñando en una escuela secundaria en St. Paul.
The story of the Jensens is not unusual. Although life on the farm has changed a great deal, farming is still a necessary and very important occupation. However, city life attracts young people like Carl and Inga Jensen. Every year many of them leave the farms and take jobs in the many factories which are located in or near large cities. La historia de los Jensen no es inusual. Aunque la vida en la granja ha cambiado mucho, la agricultura sigue siendo una actividad necesaria y muy importante. Sin embargo, la vida de la ciudad atrae a los jóvenes como Carl Jensen e Inga. Cada año, muchos de ellos abandonan las fincas y tomar puestos de trabajo en las muchas fábricas que se encuentran en o cerca de las grandes ciudades.
1. Describe the Jensen family.
2. What are some of the things that farmers do?
3. Do all of The Jensens still live on the farm?
4. What important products are made from milk?
5. Why is farming important?
6. Which do you prefer, farm life or city life? Why?
applianceaparatoIt’s best to buy durable appliances that last a long time.
autumnotoñoIt’s almost autumn, the weather’s getting colder.
because of debido aBecause of the demand for appliances, the factory increased production.
binderempacadora de henoa. A machine that reaps and ties grain. b. An attachment on a reaping machine that ties grain in bundles. Un archivo adjunto en una máquina segadora que une el grano en paquetes.
clayarcillaMost plants don’t like to grow in clay.
clothingropaThe United States produces clothing in great abundance.
dairylácteoDairy products are in demand in this region. His father owns a dairy.
equipment equipoFarm equipment is quite expensive.
feed grinder alimentar a grinderA feed grinder grinds several plant materials together and produces a pelletized feed for horses and other livestock.
femalefemeninoA cow is a female bovine and a bull is a male bovine.
fieldcampoFarmers generally work out in the fields every day.
fish canning conservas de pescadoCannery Row in Monterey California is famous for fish canning.
food processing procesamiento de alimentosThe food processing industry in America is quite large.
groundsueloThe ground here is very rich and good for growing cotton.
harvest cosechaThe harvest this year is quite good.
hay loader cargador del henoA hay loader is a machine for farmers that picks up bales of hay or straw prepared by a hay baler, stacks them on a platform, and transports them to a stacking site. Un cargador del heno es una máquina para los agricultores que recoge las balas de heno o paja preparado por una empacadora de heno, los apila en una plataforma, y los transporta a un sitio de apilamiento.
implementUmsetzungAn agricultural implement is a tool or machine used in agriculture.
industryindustriaThis industry is difficult to manage.
lemonlimónLemons are expensive and not very easy to grow as they ripen quite slowly.
livestockganadoLivestock are farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In the USA they are primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules.
manufacturingfabricaciónThe major manufacturing area is in the Great Lakes area.
meat packing empacadoras de carneMeat packing is a major industry in the city of Chicago.
milkerordeñadoraA milking machine is commonly called a “milker” by farmers.
mostly principalmenteThe central part of American was mostly grassland.
peanutmaníThe peanut plant is usually grown in the southern United States. They are native to South America and have been cultivated there for thousands of years. It is now grown in most tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, especially in India and China (the major world producers), W Africa, and the SE United States.
pigcerdoThe state of Wisconsin is famous for raising pigs.
principal principalThe principal product of California used to be citrus fruits.
product productoThe farm products from the west coast of America are of high quality.
reapersegadorA reaper is a farm implement that reaps (cuts) the stalks of grain and gathers them into bundles.
ricearrozRice is grown mainly in the southern states.
rocky rocosoThe ground here is very rocky and not suitable for agriculture.
sheepovejaA lot of sheep are raised in the state of Utah.
steel aceroThe most steel mills are located in the north.
thoroughbredpura sangreA thoroughbred is a light breed of racing and jumping horse descended from three desert stallions brought to England between 1689 and 1724. Thoroughbreds have a delicate head, slim body, broad chest, and short back. Most are bay, chestnut, brown, black, or gray. They stand about (64 in., 163 cm) high and weigh about 1,000 lbs (450 kg). They are sensitive and high-spirited and are often used to improve other stock.
threshertrilladoraA thresher is a machine that separates grain or seeds from the ears, tassels, heads, and cobs of agricultural plants.Also known as threshing machine.
tobaccotabacoThe state of Virginia is famous for growing fine quality tobacco.
tractortractorIn agriculture, a tractor is a vehicle used to pull such equipment as plows, cultivators, and mowers; to power stationary devices such as saws and winches; and to push snowplows and earth-moving implements. Early tractors were steam-driven; now they are generally powered by gasoline or diesel engines.
true verdaderoIs it true that manufacturing production in the United States is lower than it was last year?
underbrushmalezaThe underbrush must be cleared first before it can be used. Underbrush is a group of plants consisting of shrubs or, less frequently, tree varieties that never form part of the dominant crown cover.